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 "Applications of A New Document Model for Digitalization of East Asian Classical Documents", Howie Lan(藍效農)   Instructional Technology Program Uninversity of California, Berkeley

Digital Library Project: University of California at Berkeley

"Multivalent Documents: Anytime, Anywhere, Any Type, Every Way User-Improvable Digital Documents and Systems", Thomas A. Phelps, A dissertation for Ph. D, University of California, Berkeley (1998)

"Multivalent Documents: A New Model for Digital Documents", Robert Wilensky Thomas A. Phelps, Technical Report, CSD-98-999 (1998)

"Multivalent Documents: Inducing Structure and Behaviors in Online Digital Documents", Thomas A. Phelps & Robert Wilensky, Proceedings of Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences '96 (Best Paper Award, Digital Documents Track)

運用新文獻模式資料,整理後推廣到數位化圖書館計劃(digitallibrary project),介紹有關國外的技術、搜集、行政。

多價文獻 ( 多訊息層次文獻模式 ) 


1.印刷文獻:Monolithic (單塊)

2.數位文獻:Multivalent (多價)

Multivalent View of Document(多價文獻模式)提供給下列人士參考:




Traditional View of Document(文獻的傳統觀念)

Physical Media (物理性質媒介)

l.Clay tablets (泥版)

2.Oracle bones (甲骨文)

3.Bamboo strips (竹簡)

4.Paper (紙本)

Traditional View of Document(文獻的傳統觀念)的缺點:

l.Equivalents of books (與書同義)

2.Basic Units are Stand-along and Disconnected (基本單元是獨立且不互相連結的)

3.Time consuming to search and find informations across basic units (互參、對照、查詢資料費時)

4.For human to "read" only ( 只提供 給 人"  " 的功能)

The Multivalent Document   (數位化文獻是「多價文獻  )


  • information entity
  • content & functional factor
  • layers & behaviors
  • incrementally and openly
  1. "having many values, meanings, or appeals", relating to the multifarious benefits to the user of the new document model.
  2. an atomic analogy.Atoms bond with one another by sharing their outermost,or valence, electrons, forming molecules with useful emergent properties.
  3. behaviors and layers unite to form single conceptual documents with powerful emergent capability from simple parts, but with more extensive sharing and interaction among components.

Layer Examples:

  • Scanned text image  Layer ( 掃描 原版 圖擋層次 )
  • Encoded text data Layer   (編碼版層次)
  • Font reconstructed  Layer (字庫再現版層次)
  • Character geometries  Layer 
  • Meta data  Layer 
  • Future content  Layer 

Examples of Within-layer Behaviors:

in scanned text image layer﹕

  • Local enlargement
  • Copy image part
  • Paste image part

in encoded text layer﹕

  • Character finding
  • String sorting
  • Character counting

in reconstructed display layer﹕

  • Show Character with font
  • Set Typeface
  • Horizontal text display
  • Vertical text display

Examples of Cross-layer Behaviors:

  • Synonym lens同義字透鏡
  • Translation翻譯

Multivalent View of Document(多價文獻的優點)


  • 重組 (rearranged)、連結 (connected) 簡易快速

  • Processor + Human Mind (同時可提供 給 機器與人"  " 的功能)


  • 不會連結不同的資料層次
    <例如>“Dead”page images (認為 文件圖檔 單只是圖檔 )

  • 連結部分資料層次,但僅限於單一的軟體
    <例如>OCR software's post-process(光學字元辨視軟體的後置作業)

Multivalent Document Characteristics:


1. Incremental Extendable(逐加延伸)


  1. Data
  2. Layers
  3. Behaviors

2. Structurally Distributed(結構性分散管理)


Layers can be at different locations in network(各層級可分散放置於網路上不同的位置)


  1. 大正藏1~55(編碼檔):CBETA
  2. 大正藏56~100(編碼檔):SAT
  3. 高麗藏(圖檔):海印寺,韓國
  4. 手抄古本(圖檔):京大、東大
  5. 房山石經(圖檔):北京圖書館

3. Internally Complementary(內部的相互補足)


  1. Layers or behaviors may not be perfect. (各層和表現方面無法完美)
  2. Some layers may be implemented less accurate than the others.(部份的層級展現上可能較不精確)
  3. The multivalent document framework best complementary from different components of the content to contribute to the document as a whole.(多價文獻可由不同的物件加以補足而臻至圓滿)

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